|Other natural threats and hazards||Coastal erosion: Quang Ninh’s network of rivers and streams are fairly thick, with average density km/km2 1.0 to 1.9, where 2.4 km/km2. The streams and rivers in Quang Ninh are short and steep, with a large flow rate, making the possibility of corrosion, erosion highly likely. In general, the river starting from the high mountains, with large flow direction changes seasonally,and effects downstream are affected by tides and salinity. Exploitation of construction materials led to landslides on the coast (the coastal areas Quan Lan - Minh Chau Van Don.) |
|Man-made threats and hazards||Oil spills (from sea-based or land-based sources): Quang Ninh is prone to oil spills from offshore activities, such as; cruises, boat shipping, oil and gas plants in the sea and coastal areas, transport of gasoline.
Hazardous chemicals and noxious substances spills: Average wastewater flow from coal mining activities in the basin collects in the environmental two regional water in the gulf in 2006, with up to 122,850 m3 and a 30% increase in 2010, causing an adverse effect on marine water quality such as turbidity increases, the increase of organic matter and heavy metals. Development activities of major industries in the province, such as power, cement, and shipbuilding contributed significantly to increase pollution emissions in the marine environment. These plant went into operation in the period of 2006-2010: Quang Ninh Thermal Power, Thermal Power Cam Pha Cement Thang Long, Ha Long Cement, Cam Pha Cement, and had adirect impact on the quality of coastal water. The shipbuilding industry uses petroleum fuel which generates a large amount of waste oil in large construction unions. Rust is also released into the marine environment, which increases the possibility of water pollution and sediment area. In agricultural production, there is annual use of 10,000 tons of pesticides and about 30,000 tons of fertilizer. The non-compliance with dosage causes streaks of pesticide residues in plant, and environmental intrusion into surface water.
Domestic/household sewage: about 236 970 m3/day.
Domestic garbage/solid waste: 513.7 tons a day.
Overfishing/destructive fishing: Present in Quang Ninh
Deforestation/land use: Quang Ninh province's forest coverage rate is relatively high (49% in 2009) compared to the northern provinces (national average is 28%). However, the percentage of forest cover is unevenly distributed according to the districts, the highest Hoang Bo district is 60.6% and the lowest was 14.8% Yen Town Square. Forest restoration: 81732.6 hectares, accounting for 7.25% of the forests of timber, was developed later exploited (IIA) and after shifting cultivation (IIB) through regeneration or protection contracts. Forest IIA mostly dominant tree light, fast growing co old, 1 story, not high volume. IIB forest structure more complex, many years, many stories, including many species. Forest restoration is distributed in most of the districts in the province.
Unsustainable aquaculture practices: The practice of using small fish as bait for big fish in the pond rearing cages
Overexploitation/destructive use of habitats (mangroves; coral reefs; seagrass): Although coral reefs play an extremely important role for marine ecosystems, they are being overexploited by destructive means. In the last five decades of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century, fishing trawlers on the bottom reef, diving combined with toxic chemicals, explosives to catch fish species that live in reef makes coral reef ecosystems in waters district at serious threat - a wide variety of corals have already died. global climate change is leading to coral death .The area of coastal reefs shrunk: Due to economic development of urban areas, due to the diversification of cultured species, along with making indiscriminate exploitation of the coral reef area of Quang Ninh has increasingly degraded the environment, and coastal fisheries resources are being depleted. According to statistics from the provincial FPD, 1983 Quang Ninh had 40,000 mangrove forests, 24,000 ha in the year l997, 2006 to 21,737 ha. The main reason causing the decline of mangrove forests is the destruction of mangroves for aquaculture ponds indiscriminately, lack of planning; spill due to polder urbanization, and due to dumping exploitation of forests for firewood. The intertidal narrowing contaminated: Snorkeling urban development along the coast due to the development of industrial parks, ports, dock yards for building materials; due to aquaculture development, the tidal area is becoming increasingly narrow. The seagrass beds are destroyed: by fishing and the adverse impacts of raking clams.
Polluted river discharges: Some rivers have strong a risk of pollution and depleting due to resource extraction activities and indiscriminate deforestation in areas such as Dien Vong river in Cam Pha, Vang Danh river in Uong Bi.
Overuse/mismanagement of groundwater supplies: Only municipalities West, like Dong Trieu, Mao Khe, Uong Bi, Ha Long and Cam Pha are capable of exploiting groundwater.
Salt water intrusion: Salinity in the Don Son from 13-28 ‰ change in the salinity of sea water up to 32 ‰ in the estuary. Extremes of salinity usually appears after extreme water levels from 1-2 hours.
Land subsidence: occurs mainly in the coal mining areas such as Ha Long, Uong Bi, Cam Pha, Mao Khe.
Hypoxia/eutrophication of coastal waters: In agricultural production, annual use of 10,000 tons of pesticides and about 30,000 tons of fertilizer. create pesticide residues in plants, leading to environmental intrusion into surface water.
Invasive marine species: The aquatic breeds, varieties, species such as invasive alien plants Mai Duong (virgin swamp) or yellow snails, Tu Hai