In both developed and developing countries the coastal zone is likely to undergo the most profound change in the near future. Already more than 60 percent of the world's population lives within 60 kilometers of the coast. By the turn of the century two-thirds of the population (3.7 billion) in developing countries is expected to occupy the coast. Consequently, unless careful environmental management and planning are instituted, severe conflicts over coastal space and resource utilization are likely, and the degradation of natural resources will close development options. Recognizing these threats, the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro recommended that guidelines on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) be drafted to minimize conflicts and to provide for optimal sustainable resource use. In response to this request the "Noordwijk Guidelines" on ICZM were presented at the 1993 World Coast Conference in Noordwijk, The Netherlands, of which the present guidelines are an expansion and update. These guidelines are a conceptual presentation of how ICZM may be applied to contribute to the evolving practice of environmentally sustainable development. The volume first describes what the coastal zone is. It then reviews the principles of ICZM. Finally, the report discusses the guidelines for development of ICZM programs.
Guidelines for Integrated Coastal Zone Management
Integrated Coastal Management Application
Type of Resource:
Guides and Manuals
© 1996 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank