With the establishment of the ICM program in 1994, the Province of Batangas became aware of the issues and challenges associated with pollution prevention and management. Prior to ICM, monitoring data were fragmented and inconsistent: data came from studies conducted by different academic institutions and private entities. There was no regular monitoring program in the Bay. This proved inadequate for determining the environmental conditions in the Bay, inputs into planning and decision making for development of the Bay, and benchmarks to compare changes that occur as a consequence of the...
Coastal and marine ecosystems are extremely complex, highly diverse, and complicated systems. They are home to various species and habitats that provide a wide variety of products and services to coastal communities and society in general. Various economic activities take place in the coastal area including aquaculture and coastal fisheries, tourism and marine transportation of goods, among others. With such competing demands, local leaders oftentimes face difficulty in making decisions that will strike a balance between protecting the functional integrity of natural resource systems while...
The districts of Ngu Hanh Son and Son Tra in Danang, Vietnam, are endowed with rich coastal and marine resources that offer huge tourism potential. The rapid growth of coastal tourism along the coasts of these districts resulted in increased solid waste generation, sewage discharges and beach erosion. Public security at swimming beaches and seafood safety were also issues of high concern.
The blue swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus) is among the important local and export commodities in Chonburi. It is a national delicacy that is in high demand among locals as well as tourists. In 1998, the harvest of blue swimming crabs from the Gulf of Thailand reached a peak of 37,281 tons, from 18,708 tons in 1985. Harvest of blue swimming crabs continuously declined after the late 1990s to 15,132 tons in 2009. The decline was associated with overharvesting, of both the gravid (pregnant) crabs and young crabs, as well as environmental degradation arising from the coastal developments....
In 2003, a group of young coral miners, with increasing awareness of conservation from environmental campaigns in Bali, organized themselves into the Coastal Fishers Group of Karya Segara, which had the conviction to protect the coral reefs and environment in Serangan Island, but did not have enough knowledge, capacity, and facilities to effect change.
Several government agencies and economic sectors (i.e., industrial, agricultural, tourist, domestic) have been involved in the development and management of water resources in the Houay Champi sub-basin, with each having a separate and distinct development plan and management mechanism. The mechanism to harmonize development across the sectors in the sub-basin area was weak, resulting in conflicting plans and uses among the different sectors.
As immediate users of coastal areas, civil society groups have a crucial contribution to the development and implementation of ICM programs. Being users, they tend to have a deeper affinity to what is being managed. This leads to better and broader understanding of issues at stake and greater commitment to take action because of an inherent sense of ownership of place. Most often, environmental degradation is readily recognized by civil society groups because it comes along with a marked decline in livelihood.
While environmental profiles and reports were being prepared at local and national levels and covered specific sector/s, there was no integrated monitoring, evaluation, and reporting tool that was specifically intended for local governments implementing ICM programs.
The long-term protection and management of coastal and marine resources entails good governance and on-the-ground interventions. In Batangas Province, the implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs) and MPA networks within the framework of an integrated coastal management (ICM) program have provided benefits in food security and sustainable livelihoods, and engaged stakeholders in various sectors and at varying scales to integrate and complement each other’s efforts.
The GDP growth rate of Da Nang for the period 2002-2012 was 12.53%, making it one of the fastest growing cities in Viet Nam. Urbanization and industrialization over the past decade have decreased the land use area for forestry and agriculture. Natural disasters that struck Da Nang in the past have also caused destruction and uprooting of trees and vegetation, and aggravated soil erosion.