ICM implementation in Da Nang started in 2000. It was seen as a means of guiding and supporting the city government in its pursuit of sustainable development, as manifested in Da Nang’s Socioeconomic Development Plan and Environmental City Plan. Over ten years of ICM program implementation have contributed to improving the City’s planning and management capacity including expanding the involvement of civil society in program implementation resulting to better appreciation of the role of communities in environmental protection.
Xiamen City opened itself to the outside world as a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in 1981. The subsequent economic upswing coupled with the rapid growth of population and urbanization demanded more jobs, food, energy and living space, among others. Coastal reclamation, aquaculture, ports and shipping (Zhang, et al., 2013) not only brought huge environmental pressure but also yielded conflicts in the use of the sea space (e.g., incompatibilities between fisheries, shipping, coastal engineering, waste disposal, tourism and conservation [PEMSEA, 2009]).
The island province of Guimaras is the youngest and smallest of the six component provinces of the Western Visayas region in the Philippines. Guimaras is composed of five coastal municipalities: Jordan (the provincial capital), Buenavista, Nueva Valencia, Sibunag, and San Lorenzo.
In the last three decades, extensive coastal areas along the Yellow River Delta were converted into fish ponds for the cultivation of high value marine commercial species such as shrimps, abalones, and sea cucumbers. Widespread farming techniques required heavy inputs of commercial feeds for shrimp farming or fertilizers to increase benthic algae or primary productivity in abalone and sea cucumber farming. Such aquaculture practices have resulted in wastage of commercial feeds, increased sedimentation, and bacteriological/virological contamination and high concentrations of nutrients in...
Managing coastal and marine areas and resources entails working with many different social and economic sectors and scientific disciplines. Each sector has its own data and information. Integrated coastal management (ICM) requires access to this wide array of data and information. More importantly, understanding and applying socioeconomic, cultural and natural values, and demography and ecological conditions as input to policymaking and planning are key to a successful program.