|Climate variation and change||Typhoon/severe tropical storms:
From 1961 - 2007, Binh Thuan Province only has had 18 tropical low pressures landing or influence (areas within longitude ≤ 1100E and latitude 10 –120N). On average each year, about 0.4 storm affect Binh Thuan.
In 2008, due to the effects of storms, floods, and whirlwind, seashore erosion, some constructions in Binh Thuan were lost (6,146 million VND), of which houses collapsed due to whirlwind: 151; houses collapsed due tides, seashore erosion: 108; houses were flooded: 1,544. In 2009, an estimated loss of 6,600 million VND, of which houses were destroyed by floods: 620; Houses were flooded caused by rains, floods: 603. The phenomenon of natural disasters such as storms, floods, droughts, sea level rise is increasing both in frequency and intensity due to Climate change, and has a direct impact on the environment and livelihoods of the poor.
Sea level rise:
At Phu Quy observation stations from 1990-2007, sea level fluctuated average 3.0mm/year.
The drought begins in the Spring and hardly prolongs in the Summer in the half Eastern area of the province. The drought starts from Winter, prolongs and more severe in the spring in the Western area of Binh Thuan. The drought prolongs more seriously at end of the season, and the character to reflect the drought situation in Binh Thuan is “long drought.”
|Other natural threats and hazards||Earthquake:
A few small earthquakes occurred in Phan Thiet sea, such as 4.7 richter scale earthquakes occurred in 23/6/2010 off the coast of Phan Thiet, Binh Thuan Province.
The latest volcanic activity in Vietnam was in 1923. Volcano erupted in Tro island belonging to Phu Quy island (Binh Thuan). Also in Binh Thuan there are some other volcanoes but they remain dormant.
The effects of tropical depressions, storms, northeastern monsoons, high tides and waves caused very strong coastal erosion. The sea eroded inland from 15 to 20m in many places.
Occurred in Phan Ri, La Gi estuary
Red sand erosion, sediment floods occurred in Binh Thuan province, mainly in Tien Thanh commune – Phan Thiet City
|Man-made threats and hazards||Oil Spills: In Binh Thuan, from 2006 to 2010, there were 4 oil spills and it infected to the tourism industry and aquaculture. Particularly in 2012, oil spills occurred at Phu Quy island. Oil coverd over 6km of coast of two communes: Tam Thanh and Ngu Phung. Oil clotted on the beach, some sunk into the sand about 5cm.
Hazardous chemicals and noxious substance spills: Wastewater from the mining sector was not treated and collected before it ran into the surrounding environment. The beaches have steep terrain to the sea, which makes waste, sewage carrying radioactive materials and other hazardous substances pollute the sea.
Domestic/household sewage: Domestic wastewater flow in the coastal areas of Binh Thuan in 2010 was 32,560 m3/day; in 2015 will be 32,885 m3/day and will be 33,214 m3/day in 2020.
Domestic garbage/solid waste: There are about 450 tons of solid waste collected per day. The waste is collected mainly in the towns and communes of the districts. Some areas still face many difficulties in investment budget, facilities and transportation, therefore, the collection of solid waste is inadequate.
Industrial and hazardous waste: There is no waste treatment plant for industrial solid waste and hazardous waste in Binh Thuan province. The manufactures who produce hazardous waste have to preserve the waste by themselves. However, the waste preservation is not safe due to the limitation of knowledge.
Overfishing/destructive fishing: Protection and development of aquatic resources has always been of interest to provincial leaders with many policies and mechanisms. Activities related to monitoring and control are enhanced. In 2007, 1,236 violations were found; in 2008, 1,943 cases were found; in 2009, 848 cases were found; in the first 10 months of 2010, only 557 violations were found due to the increase of protection force and means. The use of explosives to exploit fish has been effectively prevented.
Deforestation/land use: Still occurring however it has decreased significantly in recent years.
Unsustainable aquaculture practices: Shrimp farming on sand area using under-ground water causes salination of coastal areas.
Overexploitation/destructive use of habitats (mangroves; coral reefs; sea grass):
Illegal coral exploitation still occurs in Tuy Phong district, Phu Quy and some other districts.
Uncontrolled development of the coastline/conflicting uses: Because there is no overall plan of exploiting and using marine and island resources, as well as no orientation for exploitation activities that leads to overexploit, the resources are gradually degraded.
Land reclamation: Reclamation of coastal sand dunes for aquaculture and mining purposes, but reclamation area is not large.
Polluted river discharges: As the results observed and testing, there are some indicators exceeded: TSS, COD, Fe, Coliform
Polluted groundwater: The pH of the groundwater at the monitoring locations have a neutral value, and relatively stable year to year, and reach the limit value according to QCVN 09:2008 / BTNMT. COD value at almost monitoring locations in the years 2005-2008 did not find or find a low COD values and within the permission. However, in May 2009, at a few locations, the COD value were exceed the allowed limitation at Duc Thuan station, Phuoc Can station and Ham My water supply station with COD value from 5.0 – 12.3mg/l. That value is 1.3 – 3 times over allowed value. By December 2009, the COD value at mentioned above stations was reduced to the limit value allowed. The analyzed results of 2010 and early in 2011 showed that COD ranged from 9-74 mg/l, exceeding permitted value from 2.25 to 18.50 times. The presence of COD in water shown that water was polluted by organic. All figures of As, Fe, SO42-, Mn, Pb are within allowed limitation of QCVN 09:2008/BTNMT. (Report of the task for developing environmental protection strategies of Binh Thuan province up to 2020 )
Salt water intrusion: Groundwater salinity infiltration occurs mainly in the estuarine areas, coastal areas, due to the infiltration of sea water or buried salt water. Sea water often comes to estuaries and influent to the quality of river water in downstream coastal areas of Binh Thuan.
Land subsidence: Occuring in Tuy Phond district.
Harmful algal blooms: Red tides occur every year at the begining months of West - Southern monsoon lasting from mid-May to mid-September.
Hypoxia/eutrophication of coastal waters: Red tide causes a lack of oxygen in the sea as well as Lagi, Phan Thiet and Phan Ri ports.