|Focus site: Koh Rong and Koh Rong Sanlem
End of project target: 10% increase in the METT rating over baseline survey; 10% increase in the Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE); At least 10% of fisher households benefitting from alternative livelihood; At least 25% increase in household income of fishers
|Scoping (including areal extent of threatened fishing grounds covered by ICM/EAFM management plans)||X||Research in between 2010 and 2012 showed that mean hard coral cover was approximately 20% around Koh Rong, and approximately 13% around Koh Rong Sanlem (KRS). Coral diversity is considered to be low throughout the entire archipelago, with a dominance of Porites and Diploastrea heliopora. Fish abundance is also low, in particular commercially valuable reef fish. The foremost indicator fish observed around KRS are snappers (Lutjanidae) (41%), butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae) (33%), parrotfish (Scaridae) (18%) and grouper (Serranidae) (7%). Fish are found in highest abundance in southwest and west Koh Rong. Discarded fishing nets dominate reefs, and have been found in almost every survey site surrounding KRS.
Satellite imagery taken from January 2013 showed the presence of approximately 112ha mangrove on Koh Rong and 15ha on KRS. The largest continuous composition of mangrove habitat is found east of Koh Rong. Localised cutting of mangroves exist in certain areas, however the greatest threat to mangroves is expected to come from unsustainable coastal development.
Transect surveys executed in 2013 suggest that total seagrass area in the KRA is 18ha, with a large seagrass bed in Daem Thkov (10ha). Species composition includes Halodule pinifolia, Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoraides and Halophila minor, with Halodule pinifolia dominating composition. Major threats in the KRA to seagrass beds include destructive fishing practices and land-based pollution.
There are 476 species of finfish, 20 species of crab, 42 species of gastropods and 24 species of bivalves that are found in Koh Rong archipelago. Many of these species are highly valued for commercial fisheries (Try 2003 as cited in Livelihood Assessment Report). |
|Baseline conditions for CPUE for important fish species (threats, risks, or vulnerability assessments of fishing ground; governance and socio-economic conditions)||X||X||Main targeted species:
• Koh Rong Sanlem: “squid fishing” village (77% of fishermen practice squid fishing); Koh Toch and Prek Svay seems to focus on crab fishing (79 and 54%, respectively); Crab fishing still dominates in Daem Thkov yet squid and fish also play an important role (26 and 29% of fishermen). In total, crab fishing ranks first (45% of interviewed fishermen), squid second (33%), followed by fish (22%)
• Fishing gears: squid lines dominate in KRS (86,5% or recorded fishermen), while Koh Toch uses mostly crab nets (79%) and Daem Thkov crab traps (48%)
• Most common catches: Sepia sp.(squid) is the most common commercial catch; groupers, snappers and sweetlips are among the most valuable fish, as well as the blue swimmer crab. Subsistence catches include bream, paradise whiptails and rabbit fish.
• Approximately 2,000 island inhabitants within the KRA depend heavily on fishing, particularly for crab and squid, with as many as 60-80% of people engaging in fishing and fishing related activities. Local perception on catch volume and quality are generally positive for commercial squid and crab catch, with over 50% of the KRA community surveyed in 2014 citing their catch to be ‘good’ or ‘very good’ (Leng et al 2015). Perceptions on finfish are not as optimistic, with only 25% of respondents citing their catch to be ‘good’ or ‘very good’ (Leng et al 2015) (as cited in the MFMA Plan).
Main threats and issues:
• Trawling boats
• Destructive fishing practices (use of chemicals/poison)
• Increase in # of fishermen from outside
• Big boats with lamps (light fishing)
• Conflicts with “foreigners”
• Sand dredgers
• Changes in weather patterns
• Lack of/poor law enforcement
• Lack of funding, human resources and technical support
Source: Koh Rong Sociodemographic report |
|EAFM or similar management plan||X||• Management Plan for the Koh Rong Archipelago (2016-2020) developed.
• The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) issued Proclamation No. 364 on 16 June 2016 declaring the official creation of the Marine Fisheries Management Area of Koh Rong Archipelago.
|Evidence of measured increase in CPUE of 10% over baseline condition for important fish species using ICM/EAFM approach||X||No information available. |
|Socio-economic and ecological impacts and benefits derived from ICM/EAFM implementation (DSS models e.g., FISH DA, TURF)||X||No information available. |
|Socio-economic assessment of fishing households||X||• Koh Rong commune constitute five villages including Koh Touch, Daem Thkov, Prek Svay, Sok San and Koh Rong Sanlem.
• There were about135 households in 2014 compared to 540 households in 2016. There are 675 HH in 2017, which translates to about to 2590 people
• A family a could earn around 1380 USD to 1980 USD annually from tourism-related jobs while tourism service provider could earn from 6000 USD to 12000 USD annually. Income from fishing ranged from 8452.50 USD to 19125 USD annually. Approximately 80 percent of this gross income are spent for gasoline, crew members and fishing equipment.
• Literacy rate ranges from 50-77% in the 5 villages in Koh Rong.
• Information system on safety at sea does not exist for fishing families and the general population as a whole. The access to information is very limited or totally unavailable.
Source: Livelihood assessment report in Koh Rong/Koh Rong Sanlem
|Livelihood development and implementation opportunities||X||Main livelihood in Koh Rong Archipelago
1) fishing and tourism service laborers
2) tourism service laborers and grocery selling
3) fishing and grocery selling
4) tourism service staff, government and food sellers
5) tourism service providers – guest house and food seller, and
6) integrated crop plantation
• Lack of access to credit facilities/institutions is often cited as a major constraint to livelihood development
• The livelihood assessment found that there is limited number of government and NGO initiatives in Koh Rong commune that are trying to develop opportunities for livelihood change or diversification.
Livelihood initiatives in Koh Rong
• Crab bank initiative introduced by FiA in 2010 and later on by FAO organization (completed).
• Provision of access to livelihoods resources such as improvement of fisheries resources through conversation and co-management, improvement of access to micro-finance services, improvement of safety at sea, improvement of post-harvest fisheries, and diversification of off farm jobs. This initiative was supported by FAO-RFLP program (completed).
• Improvement of health care services by Provincial Department of Health (ongoing).
• Improvement of education access by Provincial Department of Education (ongoing).
• Building capacity of tourism services including hospitality, food hygiene, English training, and tourism standard. This initiative is supported by Provincial Department of Tourism and commune councils (ongoing).
• Management plan for the Koh Rong Archipelago Marine Fisheries Management Areas 2016 to 2020 being implemented by FFI.
• Private tourism operators (both national and foreign) approximately 102 places which greatly supports to engagement of young people employment (ongoing).
Source: Livelihood assessment report in Koh Rong/Koh Rong Sanlem
|Market assessment/sustainability analysis of alternative livelihoods ||X||• The livelihood assessment report in Koh Rong Archipelago provided an analysis of the livelihood patterns and strategies of coastal families in Koh Rong Commune. The assessment also provided recommendations to improve livelihood opportunities in Koh Rong commune. Recommendations for improving livelihood in Koh Rong
Commune are as follows.
- Ecotourism initiative establishment should be targeted for livelihood diversification in order to increase income of the people.
- Facilitate the capacity building on relevant tourism industry such as English language, safety driving manual of the boat, tourism hospitalization, standard of food and restaurant, tourism safety manual etc.
- Facilitate the provision of land right and ownership legal instruments.
- Establishment of conservation areas in order to protect and conserve marine resources for the purpose of tourism visits.
- Coordinate to establish tourism boat port for community in order to avoid conflict with private groups.
- Frequent follow up by both local and provincial government to strengthen the unity of the community especially community fisheries.
- Improve the rural infrastructure in order to provide more easy access for visitors to crush in the commune.
Specific recommendations for Koh Touch and Prek Svay villages
Due to the advanced and matured tourism implementation in Koh Touch village since 2011, added value activities to tourism operation in the area may include:
- Creation of tourism cooperative composed of boat and port management committee, tours operation committee, and income collection management committee.
- Provision of capacity building to people to participate in tourism project.
- Establishment of tourism supply chains including fishing groups and grocery selling shops in order to guarantee on time and safe food for tourists.
• Building of community boat landing port
Source: Livelihood assessment report for Koh Rong
|Pilot project proposal/action plan for livelihood development||X||In support of the implementation of the MFMA Management Plan for Koh Rong Archipelago and as part of the GEF/UNDP SDSSEA Scaling Up Project, proposal for livelihood development/diversification in Koh Rong Commune will be developed based on recommendations of the livelihood assessment report. |
|Evidence of improvements in socio-economic conditions in fisher households||X||No information. |
|Case studies and policy briefs for scaling up and replication||X||No information. |