PR China, DPR Korea
Type of Resource:
Guides and Manuals
As early as in 2005, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) with financial support from the Global Environment Facility (the GEF) implemented a regional international waters project entitled Reducing Environmental Stress in the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (YSLME). Five Regional Working Groups consisting of Chinese and Korean experts conducted transboundary diagnostic analysis (TDA) of state of pollution, biodiversity and ecosystems, fisheries, socioeconomics and governance of the YSLME. Based on the TDA, the two countries developed and adopted the YSLME Strategic Action Programme (SAP) in 2009 to restore the ecosystem carrying capacity of Yellow Sea. In response to eutrophication, contamination from heavy metals and POPs and excessive nutrients identified in the TDA, construction of artificial wetlands, ecological restoration, enhancing connectivity of marine protected areas, improving legal framework and law enforcement were proposed as the management measures in the SAP. At that time, microplastics had not come to the attention of both countries as a transboundary environmental issue.
UNDP/GEF Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (YSLME) Phase II Project