Biodiversity Conservation and Habitat Management

Seagrass in Southeast Asia: a review of status and knowledge gaps, and a road map for conservation

Southeast Asia is a biologically, culturally, and ethnically diverse region, made up of 14 countries, many of which are archipelagic states (Tangsubkul 1984). The region as a whole has seen a rapid population expansion of nearly six-fold between 1900 and 2000 (Jones 2013). The current pop-ulation stands at approximately 622 million people, with most of the population concentrated in coastal capital cities (Figure 1). The region is also a global biodiversity hotspot, with high numbers of endemic species in both the marine and terrestrial environments (Sodhi et al. 2010, Tittensor et al.

Distribution, Temporal Change, and Conservation Status of Tropical Seagrass Beds in Southeast Asia: 2000–2020

Seagrass beds consist of marine flowering plants and are one of the most important habitats in the coastal ecosystem of the world. Seagrass beds support numerous flora and fauna, including endangered and commercially important species. They provide many valuable ecosystem services to humans, such as seafood provision, water quality control, disaster resilience, blue carbon stock, disease control, climate regulation, and tourism. The total economic value of seagrass ecosystem services per area exceeds that of terrestrial ecosystems such as forests. Costanza et al.

Toward a Coordinated Global Observing System for Seagrasses and Marine Macroalgae

Seagrasses and macroalgae (macrophytes) are the foundation of submerged vegetated ecosystems in shallow coastal waters throughout the world. They are among the most productive habitats on land or sea, provide critical habitat for a diverse range of animals, including commercial, and subsistence fisheries and species of concern, and provide coastal protection, uptake of terrestrial nutrient runoff, and carbon storage.

Quantification of blue carbon in seagrass ecosystems of Southeast Asia and their potential for climate change mitigation

Seagrass ecosystems are globally distributed covering the five important bioregions of the world oceans except for Antarctica (Hemminga and Duarte, 2000; Short et al., 2007; McKenzie et al., 2020). Seagrasses formcomplex interlinkagewith other coastal ecosystems that are important in maintaining awide range of ecological functions (Medina-Gomez et al., 2016; Mishra and Apte, 2020; United Nations Environment Programme, 2020) in the marine environment.

Training Module for Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture in PR China

FAO estimates that 79 percent of fisheries are either fully exploited, overexploited or depleted, with only a small number having the chance to recover from depletion. Global marine capture fishery production has declined by 1.6 per cent from 2006 to 2011. During the same period, marine aquaculture production increased by 20.6 per cent. Overfishing and depletion of wild fishery stocks and increasing global demand for seafood from aquaculture determines that the role of mariculture in seafood supply will be critical in the years to come.

Summary for Decision-Makers: Critical Habitats and Biodiversity: Inventory, Thresholds and Governance

This paper examines the distribution of species and critical marine habitats across the world’s oceans; analyzes trends in drivers, pressures, impacts and response; and establishes thresholds for protecting biodiversity hotspots, and indicators to monitor change.

From this scientific base, it assesses the current legal framework and available tools for biodiversity protection, current gaps in ocean governance and management and the implications for achieving a sustainable ocean economy tailored to individual coastal states grouped by social indicators.

Critical Habitats and Biodiversity: Inventory, Thresholds and Governance

This paper examines the distribution of species and critical marine habitats across the world’s oceans; analyzes trends in drivers, pressures, impacts and response; and establishes thresholds for protecting biodiversity hotspots, and indicators to monitor change.

From this scientific base, it assesses the current legal framework and available tools for biodiversity protection, current gaps in ocean governance and management and the implications for achieving a sustainable ocean economy tailored to individual coastal states grouped by social indicators.

Summary for Decision-Makers: Integrated Ocean Management

This paper makes the case for integrated ecosystem-based management which combines value creation and the safeguarding of ecosystem health.

By learning from previous successes and failures, the paper identifies existing impediments in policy and practice and lays out a set of steps and guiding principles towards successfully integrated ocean management.

Finally, it assesses current opportunities to accelerate progress and the impact of these opportunities on jobs and equity.

Integrated Ocean Management

This paper makes the case for integrated ecosystem-based management which combines value creation and the safeguarding of ecosystem health.

By learning from previous successes and failures, the paper identifies existing impediments in policy and practice and lays out a set of steps and guiding principles towards successfully integrated ocean management.

Finally, it assesses current opportunities to accelerate progress and the impact of these opportunities on jobs and equity.

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